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The prostate is a walnut-sized rubbery and an important Organ . It is a gland between the bladder and the penis located just in front of the rectum. It runs through the centre of the prostate, from the bladder to the penis, letting urine flow out the body. The prostate secretes fluid that nourishes and protects sperm. During ejaculation, the prostate squeezes this fluid into the urethra, and it’s expelled with sperm as semen.
Prostate conditions and cures
Prostatitis is the inflammation of the prostate, sometimes caused by infections and is typically treated with antibiotics. Depending on whether a patient is suffering from acute or chronic prostatitis, it can be treated by antibiotics, other medications or surgery.
- Enlarged prostate
Enlarged prostate also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy or BPH, prostate growth affects virtually all men over 50. Symptoms of difficult urination tend to increase with age. Medicines or surgery can treat BPH. There are 2 medications that effectively treat an enlarged prostate, Alpha-blockers which relax the muscles around the urethra which allows urine to flow freely and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors that reduce the level of a certain form of testosterone (DHT). the prostate shrinks when less DHT is present, improving urine flow. Although medications usually resolve the symptoms of enlarged prostate,in some cases surgery becomes necessary to improve symptoms and prevent complications.
- Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men, but only one in 41 men die from prostate cancer. Surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy can be used to treat prostate cancer. Some men choose to delay treatment, which is called watchful waiting. There are other treatments for prostate cancer as well like radioactive seed implants and cryotherapy.
Seminal vesicles are glands that produce the fluids that will turn into semen. The vesicles may also be called seminal glands or vesicular glands. It is part of the reproductive system. The vesicles have both glandular tissue and muscular tissue. The muscular tissue contracts to move seminal fluid and sperm into the urethra and out through the penis.The fluids that develop in your seminal vesicles make up an estimated 50% to 80% of your semen’s volume. The substances in these fluids are designed to help sperm stay alive once they enter the vagina. The seminal vesicles are located behind your bladder but in front of your rectum. The tip of the vas deferens is near the vesicles.
Seminal vesicle conditions and cure
Here are some conditions and disorders that can affect the seminal vesicles:
- Seminal vesicle stones
They are believed to form due to inflammation or structural abnormalities in the seminal vesicles. Reflux of urine back into the ejaculatory duct may also play a role in stone formation.
These happen more often in places where tuberculosis and schistosomiasis are common. Infections of the seminal vesicles are called vesiculitis or spermatocystitis.
Cysts are fluid-filled sacs.
Some tumors on the vesicles have started in other places in the body, like the colon or the prostate.
- Congenital diseases (Diseases that the patients are born with)
These include seminal vesicle agenesis (which means that one or both vesicles are missing or smaller than normal)
Treatments for medical conditions related to the seminal vesicles
If you have issues involving your seminal vesicles, the treatment depends on the causes a few of the possible treatment include:
- Antibiotic: these drugs are used to treat infections
- Paracentesis: this is a way of using a needle to remove fluid from your abdomen.
- Minimally invasive surgery to remove cysts, stones and tumors.
- Radical prostatectomy which is a surgery for prostate cancer that also removes seminal vesicles.
It appears as a curved structure on the posterior (back) margin of each testis. It has three sections. These are the head, body,and tail. Although it bears some superficial resemblance to the testes, the epididymis differs in that it is smaller, and the tubes are larger and less densely packed.
Near the top of the testis is the head of the epididymis, which stores sperm until it is ready to undergo maturation. Next is the body, a long, twisted tube where the sperm matures. This maturation takes approximately one week. Last is the tail, which connects to the deferent duct, also referred to as the ductus deferens or vas deferens. From here, the sperm is transported to the ejaculatory duct.
Partially surrounding and separating the epididymis from the testis is a thin sheet of tissue referred to as the tunica vaginalis. The walls of the epididymis are lined in pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue, meaning that the arrangement of the cells gives the appearance of two layers, although it is only one.
Epididymitis is inflammation of your epididymis, a coiled tube at the back of your testicle that stores and carries sperm. This swelling can cause intense testicular pain. Epididymitis can occur at any age, though it happens most often in people between the ages of 14 and 35. Men and people assigned male at birth can develop epididymitis.
Symptoms of epididymitis
Epididymitis symptoms may include:
- Pain in your scrotum, sometimes moving to the rest of your groin.
- Swelling and redness in your testicle.
- Blood n your semen.
- Fever and chills.
- Dysuria ( painful urination)
Causes of epididymitis
Most cases of epididymitis are caused by an infection called E. coli. Some cases happen from bacteria called Mycoplasma or Chlamydia. These infections often come by way of sexually transmitted infections.
Other infections, including the mumps virus and rarely,tuberculosis, can also cause epididymitis.
Sometimes, epididymitis occurs when pee (urine) flows backward into your epididymis. This can happen as a result of heavy lifting. Other epididymitis causes include:
- Blockage in your urethra (the tube that carries pee from your body).
- An enlarged or infected prostate gland (a muscular, walnut-sized gland that surrounds part of your urethra).
- Use of a catheter (a tube that drains your bladder).
- Surgery on the prostate, urethra or bladder.
- Traumatic groin injury.
Epididymitis treatment involves antibiotic. The most common medications include doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Antibiotic treatment usually lasts about one to two weeks.
People with epididymitis can also relieve their symptoms by:
- Elevating their scrotum.
- Applying ice packs to the affected area.
- Drinking fluids.
- Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the pain..
The scrotum is a sac of skin that hangs from the body at the front of the pelvis, between the legs. It sits next to the upper thighs, just below the penis. The scrotum contains the testicles. These are two oval-shaped glands responsible for producing and storing sperm. They also produce several hormones, the main one being testosterone.
The scrotum hangs outside the body because it needs to maintain a slightly lower temperature than the rest of the body. This lower temperature helps to maintain sperm production. Scrotal tissues help protect the structures inside the testicles, where sperm and important hormones are produced.
In addition, the scrotum protects the testicles and major blood vessels, as well as tubes that release sperm from the testicles into the penis for ejaculation.
Conditions that affect the scrotum
An inguinal hernia happens when part of your small intestine pokes through an opening in your abdominal wall into your scrotum. Some inguinal hernias follow the path of the spermatic cord into the scrotum, while others stay outside it.
Symptoms of an inguinal hernia can include, bulging or swelling around your pubic area that feels like it’s aching or burning,uncomfortable groin sensation or pain when you cough, laugh, or bend over, heaviness around your groin area, an enlarged scrotum.
A varicocele is a swollen collection of veins in your scrotum. It doesn’t always cause symptoms. When it does, symptoms include a dull, aching pain in your scrotum, pain that gets worse throughout the day, pain that starts to go away when you lie down, a scrotum that may feel like a “bag of worms”.
A spermatocele, or spermatic cyst, happens when a fluid-filled sac forms in the epididymis. These cysts aren’t cancerous or life-threatening, but they can cause pain and discomfort if they’re large. Larger, more painful spermatoceles may need to be removed with surgery.
Tips to keep your scrotum healthy
- Do a monthly testicular self-exam. Roll each testicle around in your scrotum using your fingers. Check for Lumps and swollen or tender areas.
- Bathe regularly. Take a shower or bath regularly to keep your entire genital area clean. This reduces your risk of skin infections that can cause other complications. Keep your penis and scrotal area dry after bathing. Moisture trapped in the area can quickly become a breeding ground for fungus.
- Wear loose, comfortable clothing. Try to avoid wearing tight underwear and pants. Allow your scrotum to hang naturally from your body to help keep the scrotal temperature low and prevent injury.
- Wear protection when you have sex. Wear a condom when doing any kind of sexual activity involving your penis. This helps to prevent sexually transmitted infections that affect your scrotum and testicles, as well as your partner.
- Trim instead of shaving. If hair management is important to you, trimming rather than shaving or other complete hair removal systems is least likely to cause skin irritation, allergic reactions, trauma, or infections.
The testes or testicles are two oval-shaped organs in the male reproductive system. They’re contained in a sac of skin called the scrotum. The scrotum hangs outside the body in the front of the pelvic region near the upper thighs.
Structures within the testes are important for the production and storage of sperm until they’re mature enough for ejaculation. The testes also produce a hormone called testosterone. This hormone is responsible for sex drive, fertility, and the development of muscle and bone mass.
Conditions that affect the testes
A hydrocele happens when excess fluid builds up in the cavities around one of your testicles. This is sometimes present at birth, but it can also result from an injury or inflammation. Hydrocele symptoms include testicular swelling that gets more noticeable as the day goes on, a dull ache in your scrotum and feeling heaviness in your scrotum
Testicular torsion means that your testicle has rotated in the scrotum. This can wind up the spermatic cord, cutting off blood supply, nerve function, and sperm transport to your scrotum. Symptoms of testicular torsion include severe scrotum pain, swelling of the testicle, lower abdominal pain, feeling nauseous and vomiting
Orchitis refers to a swollen or inflamed testicle. Like epididymitis, orchitis often results from an infection caused by an STI. Orchitis symptoms include testicular pain and tenderness, a swollen testicle, Fever, feeling nauseous and vomiting
Testicular cancer happens when cancerous cells multiply within the tissue of your testicles. It commonly starts in the tubular testicle structures that help produce sperm. The cause of testicular cancer isn’t always clear. Symptoms of testicular cancer can include a lump in your testicle, feeling heaviness in your scrotum, fluids in your scrotum, testicular pain, abdominal or back pain and swollen or tender breast tissue
Tips for healthy testes
Try the following to keep your scrotum in good health:
- Do a monthly testicular self-exam
Roll each testicle around in your scrotum using your fingers. Check for lumps and swollen or tender areas.
- Bathe regularly
Take a shower or bath every day to keep your entire genital area clean. This reduces your risk of infections that can cause other complications. Keep your penis and scrotal area dry after bathing. Moisture trapped in the area can quickly become a breeding ground for bacteria
- Wear loose, comfortable clothing
Try to avoid wearing tight underwear and pants. Allow your scrotum to hang naturally from your body to help keep the scrotal temperature low and prevent injury.
- Wear protection when you have sex
Wear a condom when doing any kind of sexual activity involving your penis. This helps to prevent sexually transmitted diseases that affect your scrotum and testicles.